Accept: agree with invasive rebiopsy; reject: cannot agree with rebiopsy if the disease progresses after initial chemotherapy. disease progression after initial chemotherapy, but before second\line chemotherapy (cohort 2). Results In this study, 50 and 30 patients were enrolled in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. In cohort 1, 37 (74%) patients agreed to rebiopsy, if disease progression occurred, whereas 18 (60%) patients in cohort 2 agreed to invasive rebiopsy at disease progression. The primary reasons for rebiopsy rejection were poor physical condition and patient burden related to the initial biopsy. Seven patients answered the survey questions during the treatment course, and the acceptance rate was lower among patients who agreed to rebiopsy at disease progression than before treatment. Conclusions Invasive rebiopsy can lead to distress in some patients. To improve the consent rate for tissue rebiopsy, treatment strategies including rebiopsy should be discussed with patients during the early treatment phase. conferring Mcl-1-PUMA Modulator-8 sensitivity to EGFR\tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as deletions in exon 19 and a point mutation substituting L858R in exon 21, treated with first\generation or second\generation EGFR\TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) were found to later acquire a second mutation in (T790M), which led to resistance;6, 7, 8, 9 a third\generation EGFR\TKI, osimertinib, has been developed to overcome this resistance.3, 10 Appropriate treatment for NSCLC patients is determined with concern of their physical condition, complications, histological type, pathological findings including immunostaining, and tumor mutation status. For diagnosis and molecular characterization of lung tumors,11, 12 adequate invasive tissue\sampling procedures, such as bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, computed tomography\guided biopsy, and even surgical biopsy, are necessary, all of which are associated with pain. In clinical practice, invasive rebiopsy Mcl-1-PUMA Modulator-8 is an essential approach for selection of the next chemotherapy, which, however, is limited by tissue availability13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and patient burden related to the initial biopsy. This study investigated patient awareness of invasive rebiopsy in advanced NSCLC, with the goal of determining factors that will improve the rate of this Mcl-1-PUMA Modulator-8 invasive procedure necessary for optimal treatment. Methods Study patients This prospective study recruited patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC under protocol approved by the Kitasato University Medical Ethics Business (B15\31). Eligible patients were those with a pathological diagnosis of NSCLC and who had a planned first\line or second\line chemotherapy at Kitasato University Hospital in Kanagawa, Japan, between July 2015 and May 2016. We received written consent from each patient in this study. The third\generation EGFR\TKI, osimertinib, had not been approved in Japan at the time this study was carried out. After obtaining written consent, patient awareness was evaluated with a survey, and patient characteristics TLK2 and clinical data were collected. At diagnosis, invasive procedures including flexible bronchoscopy, computed tomography\guided percutaneous lung biopsy, open lung biopsy, cytopathological examination of pleural or pericardial fluid, transesophageal needle aspiration, or brain tumor resection were performed with or without conscious sedation, after appropriate informed consent was obtained (Table ?(Table1).1). After the diagnosis, a questionnaire was carried out using multiple selectable questionnaires (Table ?(Table2)2) at two time points: before starting first\line chemotherapy (cohort 1), and at disease progression after initial chemotherapy and before second\line chemotherapy (cohort 2). Table 1 Patient characteristics in this study = 50= 30or (Table ?(Table11). Open in a separate windows Physique 1 Clinical course and points of survey in this study. The patient awareness survey on invasive rebiopsy was performed before first\line chemotherapy (cohort 1, = 50) or second\line chemotherapy (cohort 2, = 30, including seven individuals who answered the original study (cohort 1)). Aggregate total outcomes from the study In cohort 1, 37 (74%) from the 50 individuals eventually offered consent for rebiopsy, whereas 13 individuals (26%) declined rebiopsy (Fig ?(Fig2a).2a). In cohort 2, 18 (60%) from the 30 individuals eventually offered consent for rebiopsy, whereas 10 individuals (33%) declined rebiopsy (Fig ?(Fig2b).2b). Known reasons for the reactions to the intrusive.